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 Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?

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PostSubject: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Tue Dec 01, 2015 1:19 pm


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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 3:53 pm

How dare I stretch this to say, yes, it's about control over Turkey.




Batman is actually the name of a once strategy trade hub along the upper tributary of the Tigris.  Check out the remains of an ancient bridge that leads there (would have paled the modern one).




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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 3:55 pm

Turkey wants to bury the history of Batman...

Turkey plans to restart work on controversial dam project





Turkey today announced plans to resume a controversial £1bn dam project in the face of environmental protests that it would displace thousands of people, destroy habitats and drown priceless archaeological treasures.
The environment minister, Veysel Eroglu, said work on the Ilisu hydroelectric dam on the Tigris river in south-east Turkey would restart after a six-month funding suspension ends next week.
The announcement disappointed campaigners who believed that the project had suffered a potentially fatal blow last December, after German, Swiss and Austrian institutions announced they were withholding finance because fears about the dam's environmental and social impact had not been addressed. The governments agreed that 150 World Bank conditions on the environment, heritage sites, neighbouring states and human relocation must be met.
Turkey's government argues the dam – which is planned to generate 1,200MW of electricity – is an essential part of a £19.3bn plan to bring economic prosperity to the south-east, long blighted by armed conflict between the army and the outlawed Kurdistan Workers party (PKK).
At a press conference in Ankara, Eroglu confidently said that the necessary funds would be made available, after declaring that "important work" had been carried out to bring the dam into line with international standards. The claim was not immediately confirmed by the project's backers. The [suspension] period lasts until 6 July. A spokesperson for the Swiss economy ministry told Reuters: "Switzerland is still examining the issue and will decide, together with Germany and Austria, how to proceed."

Environmentalists have warned that the dam could destroy up to 80 towns, villages and hamlets, resulting in the forced relocation of between 50,000 and 80,000 people. Campaigners have argued that residents have not been offered adequate compensation and have accused Turkey of failing to properly consult Iraq, into which the Tigris flows, and Syria, another neighbour.
Historians have warned that the dam would submerge the ancient town of Hasankeyf, which was used as a fortress by the Romans against the Persians. It was re-built in the 11th century by the Seljuks, but later destroyed by the Mongols.
Turkey, which is seeking to overcome dependence on imports of foreign gas for its energy needs, insists that valuable heritage will be protected or moved.
The Ilisu project — due for completion in 2013 — is part of a wider network of dams known as the South-eastern Anatolia Project, which the government of prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan has pinpointed as key to transforming the region's economy and quelling Kurdish separatist violence.
First planned in the 1980s, the dam has a history of troubles. The British construction company Balfour Beatty scrapped plans for a £200m investment in 2001 under pressure from environmentalists and human rights groups.

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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 3:59 pm

Hasankeyf : An Ancient City in Batman, Turkey


The drive to Hasankeyf was short yet memorable. We had left Mardin and were in the countryside, sometimes passing nomadic tribesman herding their sheep. The sky was dark grey and threatening to pour with rain. In a way, it reflected the gloomly mood hanging over Hasankeyf.

The Ancient City of Hasankeyf

The town is scheduled to be flooded as part of the Gap project to provide Turkey with more power. Along with other areas, the estimated number of people to be displaced reaches 25,000. Environmental groups have for many years’ petitioned high courts to stop the plans because many species and groups of flora and fauna will be wiped out completely.
In January, courts temporarily halted progress because the government has never performed studies of how their plans will affect the environment. The planned reservoir will be the second largest in Turkey but it seems ironic that most of the new power source will supply the materialistic and non-traditional West Coast, even though the reservoir will be in the traditional Southeast.

(Old cave homes)
No one knows if and when flooding will happen. The go ahead could be given tomorrow or in ten years’ time but should the need for power outweigh preservation of history? Hansankeyf is no normal town and its history stretches back 12,000 years. It fulfills most criteria for a UNESCO world heritage site but has never been put forward for consideration because of the Gap project.

The History of Hasankeyf

Many civilizations have inhabited the area including the mighty Persians. Even the brave leader Alexander the Great and fearless Romans conquered Hasankeyf before it eventually fell to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Many buildings from these eras still stand including a mausoleum, a Roman bridge and castle, two mosques, Islamic tombs and a king’s palace. All of these overlook the Tigris River that recedes, then edges up the river banks depending on what time of year it is.
Locals used to live in caves overlooking the river and were possibly traders because Hasankeyf was an important stopping point on the ancient silk route. One local also said past communities used to wait eagerly for rain. It made gold coins appear. They had been buried for years and only revealed themselves when large rainfall shifted the soil and ground.

(Inside of a cave cafe)

Locals of Hasankeyf

Walking up one street towards the caves of Hasankeyf, I was most surprised by some of the local reaction to visitors. They seemed dull to the impending doom of their town. Just one shop displayed a sign saying “Save Hasankeyf” and the rest concentrated more on selling souvenirs and filling seats in their coffee shops.
I couldn’t spot any literature on what can be done to save the town and locals seemed more interested in sales than preservation. Across from old Hasankeyf, in the hills is new Hasankeyf. Some locals have already accepted money from the Turkish government to relocate there.
Have they accepted the fate of their small but massively historic town? Is their insistence to sell souvenirs, just a way of thinking “Well we had better make some money while we can?
To fully explore and understand Hasankeyf would take weeks. Our visit was brief, mainly because our only interest was the caves of which some are natural and some are manmade. In the past, they were people’s homes and we wanted to see inside them but access was restricted. Apparently, a man had been hit on the head by falling rocks. Natural elements are also causing damage to the old part of town.

What will happen to Hasankeyf ?

There are no certainties it will survive but if it is flooded, 12,000 years of history will be sent to an underwater grave. Go and see it while you can.

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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 4:02 pm

Then who is "Superman"?






Suleiman the Magnificent

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Suleiman I" redirects here. For the shah of Persia, see Suleiman I of Persia.
[th]Suleiman the Magnificent[/th][th]Caliph of Islam Sultan of the Ottoman Empire[/th][th]Reign[/th][th]Sword girding[/th][th]Predecessor[/th][th]Successor[/th][th][/th][th]Born[/th][th]Died[/th][th]Burial[/th][th]Consorts[/th][th]Issue[/th][th]Dynasty[/th][th]Father[/th][th]Mother[/th][th]Religion[/th][th]Tughra[/th]
Caliph of Islam
Amir al-Mu'minin
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques

Suleiman in a portrait attributed to Titian c.1530
30 September 1520 – 7 September 1566
30 September 1520
Selim I
Selim II
6 November 1494
7 September 1566 (aged 71)
Szigetvár, Kingdom of Hungary
Süleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul[1][2]
Hürrem Sultan (legal wife)
Mahidevran Sultan
Gülfem Hatun
Şehzade Mahmud
Şehzade Mustafa
Şehzade Murad
Şehzade Mehmed
Mihrimah Sultan
Şehzade Abdullah
Raziye Sultan
Sultan Selim II
Şehzade Bayezid
Şehzade Cihangir
Fatma Nur Sultan
House of Osman
Selim I
Ayşe Hafsa Sultan
Sunni Islam
Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: سلطان سليمان اول‎‎; Turkish: I. Süleyman , almost always Kanunî Sultan Süleyman; 6 November 1494 – 7 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and "Kanuni" (the Lawgiver) in the East, was the tenth and longest-reigning Great Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566.[3] Under his administration, the Ottoman State ruled over 20 to 30 million people.

Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed much of the Middle East in his conflict with the Persian Safavids and large areas of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf.[4]

At the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. His canonical law (or the Kanuns) fixed the form of the empire for centuries after his death. He was a distinguished poet and goldsmith; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development.[5]

Breaking with Ottoman tradition, Suleiman married Roxelana, a former Christian girl converted to Islam from his harem, who became subsequently known and influential as Hürrem Sultan. Their son Selim II succeeded Suleiman following his death in 1566 after 46 years of rule, thus beginning a long state of stagnation and decline during Selim II's reign. Suleiman's previous heir apparent Mustafa had been strangled to death 13 years previously at the sultan's order. His other son Bayezid had been killed by his support and Selim's order in 1561 with four of his sons.


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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 4:15 pm

Which spelled the end of Constantine's Byzantine Empire...


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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 4:18 pm

Am I over-complicating it?



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PostSubject: Re: Batman vs Superman, ...or Who's Who in Turkey?   Fri Dec 04, 2015 4:25 pm

And a little buried nugget in the history of the region...




The revival of the pagan cult: AD 361-363


It is not known exactly when the new emperor, Julian, decides to reinstate the ancient gods of Rome and Greece . At first he behaves with religious tolerance - returning to their sees, for example, Catholic bishops who have been exiled by Constantius, a committed follower of Arius. But by 362 Julian is making a prominent display of the ritual sacrifices which he carries out personally at revived pagan temples.

When Christians protest, he removes their relics from ancient shrines, imposes special taxes on Christian priests and gives preference to pagans in the civil service.
 









Julian is repeating, in reverse, the actions of his uncle Constantine in favouring Christianity. He intends to put in place a network of pagan priests and officials throughout the empire of the kind established by the Christians. This view of tomorrow does not appeal to yesterday's elite.

To what extent the young emperor might have achieved his aim is one of history's interesting speculations.
In Christian eyes God gives a swift and decisive answer when Julian is killed, in 363, in a skirmish against the Persians. A rumour, first heard a century later, offers wry satisfaction. It is said that in his dying words the apostate cedes victory to Christ: Vicisti, Galilaee (Thou hast conquered, Galilean).

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